Speakers

Speakers

Kenneth Rogoff

Thomas D. Cabot professor

Harvard University

Kenneth Rogoff is Thomas D. Cabot Professor at Harvard University.  From 2001–2003, Rogoff served as Chief Economist at the International Monetary Fund. His widely-cited 2009 book with Carmen Reinhart, This Time Is Different:  Eight Centuries of Financial Folly, shows the remarkable quantitative similarities across time and countries in the run-up and the aftermath of severe financial crises. Rogoff is also known for his seminal work on exchange rates and on central bank independence.  Together with Maurice Obstfeld, he is co-author of Foundations of International Macroeconomics, a treatise that has also become a widely-used graduate text in the field worldwide. Rogoff’s 2016 book The Curse of Cash  looks at the past, present and future of currency from standardized coinage to crypto-currencies and central bank digital currencies.  His monthly syndicated column on global economic issues is published in over 50 countries.

Rogoff is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Group of Thirty, and  he is a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations. Rogoff has been consistently among the top ten on RePEc’s ranking of economists by scholarly citations. He is also an international grandmaster of chess.

Pablo Hernández de Cos

Governor

Bank of Spain

Pablo Hernández de Cos

Governor

Bank of Spain

Kenneth Rogoff

Thomas D. Cabot professor

Harvard University

Kenneth Rogoff is Thomas D. Cabot Professor at Harvard University.  From 2001–2003, Rogoff served as Chief Economist at the International Monetary Fund. His widely-cited 2009 book with Carmen Reinhart, This Time Is Different:  Eight Centuries of Financial Folly, shows the remarkable quantitative similarities across time and countries in the run-up and the aftermath of severe financial crises. Rogoff is also known for his seminal work on exchange rates and on central bank independence.  Together with Maurice Obstfeld, he is co-author of Foundations of International Macroeconomics, a treatise that has also become a widely-used graduate text in the field worldwide. Rogoff’s 2016 book The Curse of Cash  looks at the past, present and future of currency from standardized coinage to crypto-currencies and central bank digital currencies.  His monthly syndicated column on global economic issues is published in over 50 countries.

Rogoff is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Group of Thirty, and  he is a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations. Rogoff has been consistently among the top ten on RePEc’s ranking of economists by scholarly citations. He is also an international grandmaster of chess.

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Pedro Duarte Neves

Former vice-governor

Bank of Portugal

Pedro Duarte Neves was Vice-Governor of Banco de Portugal from June 2006 to September 2017. During that period, he also chaired the Board of the Deposit Guarantee Fund, the Board of the Resolution Fund and the Board of the National Council for Audit Supervision. As of September 2017 he acts as Adviser for the Board of Directors of Banco de Portugal.

Pedro Duarte Neves acted as Alternate Chairperson of the EBA from July 2013 to June 2018 and, over the past years, chaired a number of European groups on economic and financial matters in the scope of the Financial Stability Board, the European Banking Authority and the Joint Committee of the European Supervisory Authorities. Pedro Duarte Neves was a member of the ECB’s Supervisory Board until September 2014 and a member of the General Board of the European Systemic Risk Board, from its creation to September 2017.

He joined the Research Department of Banco de Portugal in 1994 and served there until July 2004. He chaired the National Communications Authority (ANACOM) from September 2004 to June 2006.

Pedro Duarte Neves holds a PhD in Economics from Université Catholique de Louvain and he is Professor at Católica Lisbon – Business and Economics.

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Andrew Abir

Deputy governor

Bank of Israel

Andrew Abir is the director of the Market Operations Department and a member of the management board of the Bank of Israel.

The Market Operations Department has three main functions: implementing monetary policy; managing the foreign exchange reserves of the State; implementing foreign exchange policy and supporting the orderly activity of foreign exchange trading in Israel. The Department is responsible for all the operations of the central bank in the financial markets, both domestic and international.

Mr. Abir has been at the central bank since 1987, initially in the Office of the Governor and then moving to the Foreign Exchange Department in 1992. He also serves as an external director of the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. He holds a BA in Politics, Philosophy and Economics from Oxford University and a MBA from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

 

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Marianne Nessén

Senior advisor to the executive board

Sveriges Riksbank

Marianne Nessén, Senior Advisor to the Executive Board of Sveriges Riksbank 

Dr. Nessén is Senior Advisor to the Executive Board of Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, after having been head of the Monetary Policy Department for five years. Prior to that she held various positions at the Riksbank, including in the Research Department. She was the Riksbank representative in the Markets Committee at the BIS during 2007-2014. She is the Riksbank’s representative in the Network for Greening the Financial System (NGFS). 

Dr. Nessén holds a PhD from the Stockholm School of Economics, where she is an associate professor. She has published research on monetary policy in leading academic journals. 

Gaston Gelos

Assistant director and chief of the monetary and macroprudential policies division

IMF

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Liliana Jeronimo

Head of markets analysis division

Bank of Portugal

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Audun Gronn

Special advisor to the governor

Norges Bank

Joaquín Vial

Deputy governor

Central Bank of Chile

 
He holds a Bachelor’s degree and an M.A. in economics from Universidad de Chile, and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Pennsylvania (1988). 
 
Before his appointment as Board member, Mr. Vial was with the Research Department of Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria, BBVA, where he was Head Economist for South America (2008-2011), Head of Global Trends Unit (2006-2008), and Head Economist for Chile (2004-2006).
 
Between the years 2000 y 2003, he was in charge of the Andean Competitiveness Project at Harvard University’s Center for International Development (through June 2002) and subsequently at Columbia University (June 2002 – November 2003).
 
Previously, he was Head of Chile’s National Budget Office (1997-2000), Executive Director of the Latin American Research Corporation CIEPLAN (1994-1996) and Macroeconomic Policy Coordinator in the Ministry of Finance (1992- 1994). 
 
He has also been consultant to multilateral organizations such as the World Bank and the IADB, and to governments and private corporations. Between 2009 and 2011 he was Chairman of the Board of the pension fund management institution AFP Provida.
 
Mr. Vial has been a lecturer and researcher at Universidad de Chile, Universidad de Santiago and Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez. He has authored a number of academic papers on the copper market, fiscal and macroeconomic policies, and competitiveness in Latin American economies. 

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Gabor Gyura

Head – supervisory methodology department

Central Bank of Hungary

Laurent Clerc

Director for research and risk analysis

ACPR Bank of France

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Oduetse Andrew Motshidisi

Chief executive cfficer

NBFIRA

Oduetse Andrew Motshidisi is former Deputy Governor at Bank of Botswana.  He retired in January 2016, having been first appointed to the position in 2001.  Prior to that appointment, he had served in various capacities in the Bank, mainly in the reserves management function, where he was Department Director until 2000.
 
Mr Motshidisi was seconded to the International Monetary Fund between 2006 and 2007 as a Special Appointee in the African Department where he contributed on financial sector development policy for Sub-Saharan Africa.
 
Prior to joining the Bank of Botswana, he served as a Development Officer in the Government of Botswana and has had a brief career at United States Agency for International Development where he served as Assistant Project Officer.
 
Mr Motshidisi is a non-executive Director of Barclays Bank of Botswana Limited.
 
He obtained Bachelors degree from the University of Botswana (1982) and Masters degree qualification from the University of Wisconsin – Madison in 1985.  In addition, he has attended numerous short courses on reserves management, an Advanced Management Programme (Oxford University).
Joaquín Vial

Deputy governor

Central Bank of Chile

 
He holds a Bachelor’s degree and an M.A. in economics from Universidad de Chile, and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Pennsylvania (1988). 
 
Before his appointment as Board member, Mr. Vial was with the Research Department of Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria, BBVA, where he was Head Economist for South America (2008-2011), Head of Global Trends Unit (2006-2008), and Head Economist for Chile (2004-2006).
 
Between the years 2000 y 2003, he was in charge of the Andean Competitiveness Project at Harvard University’s Center for International Development (through June 2002) and subsequently at Columbia University (June 2002 – November 2003).
 
Previously, he was Head of Chile’s National Budget Office (1997-2000), Executive Director of the Latin American Research Corporation CIEPLAN (1994-1996) and Macroeconomic Policy Coordinator in the Ministry of Finance (1992- 1994). 
 
He has also been consultant to multilateral organizations such as the World Bank and the IADB, and to governments and private corporations. Between 2009 and 2011 he was Chairman of the Board of the pension fund management institution AFP Provida.
 
Mr. Vial has been a lecturer and researcher at Universidad de Chile, Universidad de Santiago and Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez. He has authored a number of academic papers on the copper market, fiscal and macroeconomic policies, and competitiveness in Latin American economies. 

Torsten Rothe

Head of foreign reserve management section

Deutsche Bundesbank

Torsten Rothe is Head of the Foreign Reserve Management Section in the Directorate Markets of Deutsche Bundesbank. His team is responsible for managing the bank’s as well as parts of the ECB’s foreign reserves.

He joined the German central bank in 1998 and held various positions within the Directorate Markets with the main focus on the management of the foreign reserves.

Before taking up his current position in early 2019, Torsten worked from 2009 to 2011 as portfolio management expert in the Investment Division of the ECB. In December 2011 he joined the EFSF in Luxembourg to support the establishment of the ESM. Here he was involved in the implementation of new financial assistance instruments and setting up the investment division of the ESM. After his return to the Deutsche Bundesbank in early 2014 he headed the team, which is responsible for the bank’s portfolio management activities with respect to the asset purchase programmes of the Eurosystem.    

He studied at the University of Jena and holds a German diploma degree in business studies.

Dirk Broeders

Senior risk manager – financial markets division

The Netherlands Bank

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Elisa Vilorio

Deputy director of the treasury department

Central Bank of Dominican Republic

Elisa Vilorio Medina is a Technical Consultant and Deputy Director of the Treasury Department of the Central Bank of Dominican Republic, where she is responsible for the Management of the International Foreign Reserves, including quantitative analysis of risk management and portfolio management. She is a Fulbright Scholar and is pursuing a PhD in Economics at Florida International University (FIU). Miss Vilorio holds Master's degree in Finance and a post-graduate degree in Risk Management from the IAE Aix en Provence in France. She has participated in different projects with World Bank under the Reserve Advisory Management (RAMP) program. Likewise, Miss Vilorio has published several articles in the Central Banking Journal related to active management of a portfolio of International Reserves and hedging strategies using interest rate futures.

Jean-François Rigaudy

Former deputy head of the banking department

Formerly BIS

Jean-François Rigaudy became Deputy Head of Banking and Head of Treasury in July 2013.

He joined the BIS in 1988 as a Portfolio Manager and, after holding various positions in Treasury and Asset Management, was appointed Head of Treasury in 1999.

Mr. Rigaudy retired from the BIS on 1 September 2020.

Before joining the BIS, he worked at the Bank of France, first in banking supervision and then in the foreign exchange and reserve management area.

Mr Rigaudy holds degrees in private law and history and a diploma from the Institut d'Études Politiques in Paris, where he also lectured in economics from 1984 to 1988.

Eric Parrado

Chief economist and general manager of the research department

Inter-American Development Bank

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Etienne Lavigne

Head, middle office

National Bank of Belgium

Etienne Lavigne is currently head of the Middle Office at the National Bank of Belgium and recently received the responsibilities of Chief Risk Officer in the area of the Securities Settlement System of the Central Bank of Belgium (NBB-SSS). Previously he was also Foreign exchange dealer and portfolio manager in the same institution.

Etienne is also regularly involved in technical assistance and cooperation relationship with various central banks. He has a master in Economics from the University of Namur in Belgium.

Dan Alexandru

Senior portfolio manager and coordinator of the SAA

Dutch National Bank

Senior Representative

Central Bank of The Bahamas

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Juliusz Jabłecki

Director, financial risk management department

National Bank of Poland

Juliusz Jabłecki is the Director of Financial Risk Management Department at Narodowy Bank Polski. He graduated with a Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Warsaw where he also teaches finance. Before joining the central bank, Mr. Jabłecki worked as an economic capital expert for Pekao Bank SA (then part of Unicredit Group). He is a co-author of the book “Volatility as an Asset Class: Obvious Benefits and Hidden Risks”, a contributor to Risk magazine, and author of numerous academic publications on monetary policy and quantitative finance. In his current role at NBP, Juliusz oversees strategic asset allocation for the central bank’s FX reserves portfolio. He is also responsible for financial risk management for NBP’s FX reserves portfolio as well as monetary policy and financial stability operations.

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Hatem Ibrahim

Sub governor – chief financial officer

Central Bank of Egypt

Senior Representative

National Bank of Denmark

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Joseph Medzano

Deputy director, financial and capital markets

Ministry of Finance and Economic Development, Zimbabwe

Joseph Medzano (43) is a fellow to the IFC-Milken Institute Capital Markets Program from The George Washington University, USA. He is the Deputy Director, Debt Resource Mobilisation, at the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development, Government of Zimbabwe. He is a holder of an MBA (Finance) from the University of Zimbabwe, B. Com (Honours) in Banking and Finance from the National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe and a Diploma, Institute of Bankers of Zimbabwe. Joseph has proven business leadership in international commercial and investment banking with extensive exposure in the private sector and public debt, financial and capital markets development and regulation. 

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Melvin Khomo

Head of financial markets

Central Bank of Swaziland

Melvin heads the Financial Markets Department of the Central Bank of Eswatini where his areas of responsibility include foreign exchange reserves management, government funding & debt issuance, monetary policy implementation and treasury operations. He holds an Mcom degree in Financial Markets from Rhodes University and a Phd in Development Finance from Stellenbosch University. Besides the Central Bank of Eswatini, Melvin has worked for other institutions that include the South African Reserve Bank, South African Post Office Group and the Bank of Namibia in various areas within Financial Markets, Investment Management and Treasury. In addition to Financial Markets, Dr Khomo has a passion for research and has published and presented some of his work in academic journals and international conferences. He currently serves as Chairperson of the SADC CCBG Financial Markets Subcommittee.

Isabelle Strauss-Kahn

Consultant

ISK International

Isabelle Strauss-Kahn is the former Lead Financial Officer in the Financial Advisory and Banking Department at World Bank Treasury. She has gained more than 15 years’ experience in Market Operations Department, from front to middle and back-office aspects, at the Banque de France where she was Market Operations Director, but also at the BIS Banking Department. She participated in several technical assistance missions with the IMF, the World Bank and on a bilateral basis at the Banque de France.  She was a member of several international committees, has been a speaker in numerous conferences related to investment practices and wrote articles on reserve management. She got an MBA in France and an MA (with PhD core) in Economics from University of Chicago

 

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Jennifer Johnson-Calari

Consultant

Central bank and sovereign investments

Ms. Johnson-Calari created and led the World Bank's Reserves Advisory and Management Program (RAMP), which is one of the world's leading providers of consulting and capacity building services to public sector asset managers. In this capacity, she worked globally with central banks, national pension funds and sovereign wealth funds in strengthening governance and building investment management capacity. She contributed to setting global standards of best practice for the management of sovereign assets and liabilities working with the IMF on the Reserves Management Guidelines and the ISWF's "Santiago Principles". Ms. Johnson-Calari has contributed to several books on the topic of portfolio and risk management and was a contributing author and editor of Sovereign Wealth Management, London: Central Banking Publications, 2008. She is a well-known expert on issues relating to central bank reserves management and portfolio management and has spoken widely at international conferences in both official and private sector fora.

She began her career with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in banking supervision with a focus on commercial bank asset/liability and risk management issues. She has earned advanced degrees from the Harvard Business School (GMP, 2004) the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) (MA, 1981) and is a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA). She currently serves as a consultant to several international financial institutions.

Elisabeth Noble

Senior policy expert

European Banking Authority

Elisabeth Noble is a Senior Policy Expert at the European Banking Authority. She leads the EBA’s work on crypto-assets, DLT, and the platformisation of financial services and coordinates the European Forum for Innovation Facilitators. She represents the EBA in EU and international standard-setter policy work streams relating to FinTech, market-based finance, financial system interconnectedness, market access and the regulatory perimeter. She is contributing to the delivery of the EU Digital Finance Strategy and was a member of the European Commission’s Expert Group on Regulatory Obstacles to Financial Innovation (now disbanded). Prior to joining the EBA, Elisabeth spent 7 years at HM Treasury advising primarily on the UK government’s response to the financial crisis and the post-crisis domestic and EU regulatory reforms (2008-14), including the reforms to the regulatory architecture in the EU (Banking Union). Elisabeth has also spent some time in the private sector.

Wanpracha Chaovalitwongse

Senior director department of data management and analytics

Bank of Thailand

Dr. Wanpracha Chaovalitwongse is Senior Director and Head of Data Management and Analytics at Bank of Thailand. Before joining BOT, he served as the 21st Century Leadership Endowed Chair in Engineering, Professor of Industrial Engineering, and Co-Director of the Institute of Advanced Data Analytics at the University of Arkansas. He previously held faculty positions at University of Washington, Princeton University and Rutgers University. Before working in academia, he worked at the Corporate Strategic Research, ExxonMobil Research & Engineering. He currently holds three patents of seizure prediction system and an intellectual property on opioid risk prediction tools. He has been invited to give lectures in top institutions around the world including Amazon, Facebook, MIT, Princeton University, University of Michigan, University of London, National University of Singapore, Peking University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Seoul National University, and KAIST.

Thomas Moser

Alternate member of the governing board

Swiss National Bank

Thomas Moser is Alternate Member of the Governing Board of the Swiss National Bank. He is also a member of the Managing Committee of the Swiss Institute of Banking and Finance at the University of St. Gallen and a member of the Board of Directors of Orell Füssli Holding Ltd. From 2006 to 2009 he was Executive Director at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in Washington, D.C., USA. Thomas Moser holds a MA and a doctorate in Economics from the University of Zurich.

Daniel Gersten Reiss

Payments and banking operations specialist

Central Bank of Brazil

Manoj Singh

Assistant general manager, banking supervision

Reserve Bank of India

Manoj Kumar Singh is a central banker with more than 14 years of experience, working currently in the area of supervision and supervisory policy development with Reserve Bank of India. His areas of expertise include risk-based supervision, fintech, regtech/suptech, with proper balance on both the challenges and opportunities.

Otar Gorgodze

Head of financial and supervisory technologies development department

National Bank of Georgia

Otar Gorgodze, CFA, FRM, Head of Financial and Supervisory Technologies Development Department at National Bank of Georgia, oversees Financial Innovation Office, Regulatory Sandbox, Open Banking and Information Exchange, AI model risk management, internal data science teams and Suptech applications. Previous change management portfolio includes Risk Based Supervisory change in banking supervision, development of cyber risk, operational risk, market risk, credit risk, macropudential risk, corporate governance and market conduct units. Acting member of Monetary Policy Committee. Contributed to change of monetary policy framework to Inflation Targeting. Prior to joining the public sector, has worked in private sector as a credit officer and investment analyst, held teaching positions at various universities. Has various publications on the topics of financial development and risk management.

Nasra Khalifa Habbani

Payments systems directorate

Central Bank of Sudan

Philip Abradu-Otoo

Director of research

Bank of Ghana

Jim Cunha

Senior vice president

Federal Reserve Bank of Boston

Sharmyn Powell

Chief risk officer

Eastern Central Caribbean Bank

Ms Sharmyn Powell has been employed at the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank for the past 24 years and currently holds the position of Chief Risk Officer.  She leads the Office of Corporate Strategy and Risk Management with responsibility for Enterprise Risk Management, Compliance, Strategic Plan development and monitoring and Business Continuity Management.  Prior to assuming this role, she served in various capacities at the Bank including, Deputy Director, Accounting Department, Director, Currency Management Department and Director, Support Services Management Department.  She is the Chairperson of the Bank’s internal Fintech Working Group, which is leading the implementation of the pilot project for the issuance of a block-chain based digital version of the EC Currency. 

Ms Powell is a Certified Accountant (ACCA), and also carries the designations of Chartered Director (C. Dir) and Audit Committee Certified (A.C.C). 

Knut Sandal

Director of payments analysis and innovation

Norges Bank

Knut Sandal is director of Norges Bank’s Payment analysis and innovation unit and head of the bank’s working group on CBDC. He has held various positions within the bank’s financial stability and payments area since 1995.  

Christina Wejshammar

Head of payments department

Riksbank

David Copple

Policy manager - digital currencies team

Bank of England

David Copple is a policy manager in the Digital Currencies Team at the Bank of England. He contributed to the Bank’s recent Discussion Paper on central bank digital currencies and has a background as an economist.

Ton Roos

Director of banknotes

European Central Bank

Ton Roos has been the Director of Banknotes at the European Central Bank in Frankfurt since November 2008. Before that, he had been the Head of the Cash Policy Department at De Nederlandsche Bank in Amsterdam since 2002 and the Deputy-Head of the Currency Policy Department from 1999. Between 1994 and 1999, he was Plant & Technology Manager at a subsidiary company of Akzo Nobel. From 1984 until 1994, he held various R&D and management positions at Akzo Nobel. Mr Roos has been the Chairman of the Banknote Committee (BANCO) of the European System of Central Banks since December 2008 and was a member of BANCO between 1999 and 2008. In 2012, he was appointed as member of the Executive Committee of the Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group (CBCDG). He holds a PhD in solid state chemistry.

Mark Gould

Chief payments executive

Federal Reserve Financial Services

Mark A. Gould, Chief Payments Executive, Federal Reserve Financial Services

Mark Gould is the Federal Reserve System’s first chief payments executive. He is responsible for leading the full range of cash and payment services provided by Federal Reserve Financial Services, working to deliver a fully-integrated suite of payment services and a unified customer experience for financial institutions nationwide.

Mr. Gould previously served as the chief operating officer and first vice president of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. From this position, he led the Federal Reserve System’s Cash Product Office, which oversees the processing, quality, and distribution of U.S. currency domestically and internationally.

Mr. Gould’s career at the Federal Reserve began thirty years ago in the Retail Payments Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Prior to his role as chief operating officer and first vice president and national cash product director, Mr. Gould led the Seattle branch and provided leadership to technology, operations, and administrative functions. He holds a bachelor’s degree in economics from Pacific Lutheran University and a master’s degree in applied economics from Seattle University.

A Washington State native, Mr. Gould keeps his ties to the Northwest by serving as a vice chair on the Board of Regents of Pacific Lutheran University. He now lives in Lafayette, California, with his wife Lisa.

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Jennifer Johnson-Calari

Consultant

Central bank and sovereign investments

Ms. Johnson-Calari created and led the World Bank's Reserves Advisory and Management Program (RAMP), which is one of the world's leading providers of consulting and capacity building services to public sector asset managers. In this capacity, she worked globally with central banks, national pension funds and sovereign wealth funds in strengthening governance and building investment management capacity. She contributed to setting global standards of best practice for the management of sovereign assets and liabilities working with the IMF on the Reserves Management Guidelines and the ISWF's "Santiago Principles". Ms. Johnson-Calari has contributed to several books on the topic of portfolio and risk management and was a contributing author and editor of Sovereign Wealth Management, London: Central Banking Publications, 2008. She is a well-known expert on issues relating to central bank reserves management and portfolio management and has spoken widely at international conferences in both official and private sector fora.

She began her career with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in banking supervision with a focus on commercial bank asset/liability and risk management issues. She has earned advanced degrees from the Harvard Business School (GMP, 2004) the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) (MA, 1981) and is a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA). She currently serves as a consultant to several international financial institutions.

Jean-François Rigaudy

Former deputy head of the banking department

Formerly BIS

Jean-François Rigaudy became Deputy Head of Banking and Head of Treasury in July 2013.

He joined the BIS in 1988 as a Portfolio Manager and, after holding various positions in Treasury and Asset Management, was appointed Head of Treasury in 1999.

Mr. Rigaudy retired from the BIS on 1 September 2020.

Before joining the BIS, he worked at the Bank of France, first in banking supervision and then in the foreign exchange and reserve management area.

Mr Rigaudy holds degrees in private law and history and a diploma from the Institut d'Études Politiques in Paris, where he also lectured in economics from 1984 to 1988.

Elisabeth Noble

Senior policy expert

European Banking Authority

Elisabeth Noble is a Senior Policy Expert at the European Banking Authority. She leads the EBA’s work on crypto-assets, DLT, and the platformisation of financial services and coordinates the European Forum for Innovation Facilitators. She represents the EBA in EU and international standard-setter policy work streams relating to FinTech, market-based finance, financial system interconnectedness, market access and the regulatory perimeter. She is contributing to the delivery of the EU Digital Finance Strategy and was a member of the European Commission’s Expert Group on Regulatory Obstacles to Financial Innovation (now disbanded). Prior to joining the EBA, Elisabeth spent 7 years at HM Treasury advising primarily on the UK government’s response to the financial crisis and the post-crisis domestic and EU regulatory reforms (2008-14), including the reforms to the regulatory architecture in the EU (Banking Union). Elisabeth has also spent some time in the private sector.

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Morten Kjærgaard

former departmental head, reserve management and collateral, banking and markets

National Bank of Denmark

Morten Kjærgaard is Head of Reserve Management and Collateral at Danmarks Nationalbank. The reserve amounts to EUR 63 billion and serves to support the fixed exchange rate policy and financial stability. Responsibilities also include managing the domestic bond portfolio and collateral pledged in relation to monetary policy lending. Prior to his current position Morten has worked in various areas including monetary policy implementation, government debt management and international relations.